eBay Meteorite Info
Welcome to the eBay Meteorite Info Page.
I created this page for several important reasons. The first reason is I noticed not allot of information was available on the internet with respects to buying meteorites on eBay including such things as tips, how to's, pitfalls, risks, and such. The IMCA (International Meteorite Collectors Association) who I am a member of, does a nice job on explaining some meteorite scams that have taken place on eBay over the years. I too have also been scammed once in my early collecting years! It was because of this mistake I made, based on inexperience, that prompted me to try and create a learning tool that could help inform meteorite collectors before purchasing meteorites, thus this page. I don't claim to know everything, but what I do know is I have acquired an amazing collection via eBay and other auctions by patience, self control and a bit of knowledge. This page will present a more in depth look, based on my personal perspectives and my experiences for purchasing meteorites on eBay or from other Dealers.
The second and most important reason is because I wanted a resource page available on the internet that any meteorite collector, from "new to the game" to "been there done that" could link to, which will remind them of the do's and dont's involving not just eBay, but any auction site or dealer that sells meteorites, by simply using common sense and wise decisions.
Though I have sold many meteorites on eBay, I will stay more focused on the "buying" aspect rather then the "selling" aspect of meteorites for this info page. I have also tried to format this page by putting it into some kind of step by step learning order, from thinking about a meteorite you are interested in for your collection, to actually purchasing, receiving and then inspecting your new collection piece. My love for the hobby of meteorites is very deep and by just following some of these tid bits that I will suggest to you on this page, will help avoid a miserable experience and instead, create a great experience of this hobby, while at the same time acquiring a great meteorite collection to show for it!
... and to think we all laughed at Charlie Brown!!
The creation of eBay truly is an underrated Marvel of Mankind's 21st century Technology! There is no other single institution, museum, or private collection of meteorites that can match the immense diversification of publicly available meteorites that eBay offers. It has opened the door to many goods and some bads, in which the best way to navigate eBay is to be street smart so to speak. You wouldn't walk through a bad part of town alone would you? Absolutely not! See, your street smart, its common sense. There is a bit more to being just street smart, and that is you need to be money smart as well. I'm sure one of the reasons you would not go alone in a bad part of town is the risk involved of having your money taken or stolen right? I thought so. The same works in this part of town, which is the hobby of collecting & buying meteorites. Here I will help suggest not only the safe routes to take, but most importantly, how to be prepared and protect yourself if you do get lost along the way in a bad part of town.
Just a quick link for anyone who may be interested in how it all began for eBay.
How to start a meteorite collection by using eBay.
How to register an eBay account
A simple eBay page shows the step by step method on how to register.
The very first thing I would recommend is to explore the eBay Meteorite Pages first. You do not need an account to surf and view any of eBay's items listed for sale or auction. You will however need to sign up for an account with eBay, which by the way is free, if you decide to purchase or even sell items on eBay. But first things first. Listed below are several links which include the eBay's Meteorite Pages, the How to register an eBay account page, and the eBay Help Page. I would highly recommend anyone starting out on eBay to take the time and completely look over the eBay Help Page. If you have never been on the eBay Meteorite Pages you are in for a shocking surprise! Whatever you do use caution! I remember my first time checking out the meteorites on eBay and I wanted one of each of everything!! This is not possible for most if not all of us. Here is where you need to commit to a budget and stick to it and do it now!! Believe & TRUST me on this to save you from bankruptcy!
I am assuming that if you have reached this stage to pursue the starting of a meteorite collection, that you have taken some serious time to read and learn at least the basics about meteorites. If not you will find lots of info about meteorites on my Meteorite Resources page by clicking HERE
eBay Help Page
PLEASE take the time to check this page out before you register.
eBay's Meteorite Pages
I would spend a good week here to grasp the magnitude before buying!
New England Meteoritical Sevices
A page explaining what Micro and Macro meteorites are including factors of both that affect prices.
I. M. C. A.
A simple right to the point page that explains some of the type meteorites to collect.
At this point you should have clicked and reviewed each of the 3 links above. You may very well have even selected a particular meteorite you were interested in for sale on eBay. You have also decided to set up an account on eBay at this point as well. The itch to buy is eating you up especially with the auction time ending soon. Before we can actually try and bid on a meteorite listed on eBay, lets do a bit more research to make sure your hard earned money is going to be spent wisely, safely, and your getting the most bang for the buck. It may seem frustrating all this research just to buy a meteorite! Trust me, if you follow this routine every time you want to bid or purchase a meteorite, it will become second nature and less time consuming since practice makes perfect. Doing this will allow you to establish a nice collection based on authenticity that will protect your investment, increase its value, and allow you to resell your meteorites with little trouble.
Macro Collection=Meteorites that can not fit in a 1"x1" Gem Jar Micro Collection=Meteorites that fit in a 1"x1" Gem Jar.
Macro-Micro Collection=A mix of Micro & Macro size meteorites.
I think I see the meteorite on eBay I am interested in. Now what? Can I bid?
At this point you have reviewed the 3 pages above and are now pretty certain of the type meteorites you want to collect has well as the size of meteorite, be it a Macro collection a Micro collection or even a mix of both which I like to call a Mic-Macro type collection. From this point on I will teach you the method I use on every single meteorite I have purchased be it from eBay or a Dealer.
A well done simple page explaining some of the general values of the many different type meteorites.
Lets not bid yet. Our work is just beginning! Patience here is the key, rather then trigger happy so to speak which you may regret later. eBay is here to stay for a very long time. The awareness of meteorites as a hobby is accelerating at a rapid pace which means meteorites on eBay will also be here a long time. Do no panic and think that if you do not bid all out for for a meteorite it is lost forever. It is not. Another similar meteorite will eventually be listed in due time. There will be more opportunities trust me. For now were going to be money smart. We know what we want, we know eBay has 1 or more listed but there are many things we don't know yet and need to know before we pass the buck.
The first thing we do not know is how much (other then a "Buy it Now") the meteorite we want to bid on eBay will cost us! Here is the best guideline to almost every meteorite available on eBay. Just simply check as many Dealers sites as you can for the type meteorite your interested in. Don't worry if any Dealer does not have the same exact weight as the one you want since meteorites are sold by weight. Once you find that type meteorite check out the weight and price the Dealer is asking for that piece. Now its just a matter of simple math to get a rough idea what that meteorite on eBay is worth. I will give you a simple example below so you understand a bit better. The reason I use Dealer sites to check prices is because these Dealers do this for a living and they know and sometimes can influence meteorite prices. I have been a fanatic with keeping up on meteorite values since I started collecting and understand them well. This has allowed me to better stretch my dollar and expand my collection.
How to rough estimate a meteorite value.
A meteorite dealer has a 6 gram piece of Allende meteorite available with crust on one edge for $60.00 U.S. dollars.
Remember Dealers usually sell meteorites per gram. So we need to know how much this Allende costs per each gram.
6 gram slice. Crust 1 edge.
Simple math will show us.
$60.00 divided by 6 grams or
60.00 ÷ 6 = 10.00
What I have shown you above is the most important part of collecting meteorites. You can now get a general idea of the value for the meteorite you are interested in and this will serve as your budget formula when interested in other meteorite types as well. Getting back to the example above, we now see that the Allende sells for about $10.00 a gram. I use the word "about" because it is important to remember that when buying meteorites you will usually get a better price per gram when you buy larger meteorites by weight then meteorites with less weight.
Ok now... the meteorite on eBay your interested in, is also an Allende meteorite just like above. Except it is only 3 grams in weight and has no crust. Because you did your homework by checking other Dealer prices and doing the math on Allende, you now know that each gram of Allende is worth about $10.00.
With that said, then the 3 gram piece on eBay should be worth about $30.00 ($10.00 x 3). This should be your max limit, give or take a few dollars, when bidding on eBay!
But my meteorites weight is in mg! What is that and how do I figure the price out?
mg is the abbreviated form for milligrams. Some Dealers sell their meteorites by the milligrams instead of grams. This is usually of those meteorites that are exceedingly very rare, and with a limited amount of that meteorite type material.
The same math we did above applies with meteorites priced by the milligram as well.
Just take the price of the meteorite the Dealer is asking and divide it by the weight in milligrams.
Now you know the price per milligram! Note: In decimal form everything after the dot is in cents!
Tid Bits to Remember
mg = milligram
gm = gram
1000 milligrams = 1 gram
To save you time, I have comprised a list of world renown Dealers, that you will find by clicking on my Mix of Links page. I have dealt with many of these Dealers in the past, and most prices are fair to compare. In fact, many of these Dealers also sell their meteorites on eBay! I have comprised a separate list of these Dealers, including their eBay Member Names, located down below at the end of this Info Page for your reference.
Before we move on to step 2 please click the links below to view. These pages will help shed some light into your choosing the type meteorite collection you might want to start. Remember that your choice will also directly dictate your budget since certain type meteorites cost more then others.
Ok it looks like I'm ready to bid right?
Almost but not quite! At this point we know a few things. We know the "about" price for the meteorite were interested in. We also know our maximum bid or price we are willing to pay for this meteorite. What we don't know are 2 of the most important pieces of information when buying meteorites on eBay, that need to be known before we ever bid on a meteorite! These are truly the 2 most important bits of information you as a buyer and investor need to know and pay close attention to before even considering posting a bid.
1) You need to research the eBay seller first and foremost.
2) The meteorite must come with an ID card and/or a C.O.A. which is a Certificate of Authenticity.
Lets understand the importance of these 2 key factors that should always be considered before bidding on any meteorite available & listed on eBay.
Why is it so important to research the seller of a meteorite auction/listing on eBay? Plain and simple! Even though eBay is a wonderful addition on the internet for the sale of many unique and desired items, eBay is also a place that some individuals use to take advantage of buyers, especially the uneducated or naive buyer. Yes it is true. There are scammers that commit fraud and sell items that are NOT what they say they are or even worse these items are stolen. Unfortunately these sinister auctions/sales take place quite frequently and not only just on eBay! This is not to say that eBay is bad. This corruption goes along with the territory. eBay alone cannot always spot these false sales until it is too late. This does not help the poor individual who has just been ripped off of his/her hard earned money by bidding on an item that is a fake, broken, wrongly described or stolen. This is why we need to research the seller before we bid.
Are you telling me that this stuff happens on eBay with meteorites?
Sad but true it happens, has happened, and continues to happen in this type of selling environment.
So what can I do so this doesn't happen to me?
The ideal solution is to simply buy from a very reliable source such as a Dealer. This idea, though true, does not help the newbie just starting out in the hobby of collecting meteorites since they have no clue who the Dealers are, let alone the seller selling meteorites on eBay! What helps make this solution a bit easy is the fact that many Dealers sell their meteorites on eBay. In fact there are several Dealers who have their own eBay stores of which to advertise their meteorites as a "Buy it Now" where you don't even have to bid or wait!! To make it even easier, down below I have created a list of these meteorite Dealers that sell on eBay, including their web sites and or eBay stores. This will allow you to become more familiar with who they are. I have dealt with many of these top Dealers in the world in one way or another and have been 110% satisfied with each and everyone listed! I will touch base a little later on about Dealers and explain why this is usually the safest route to take when the urge to purchase a meteorite takes over. For the meantime I will show you how to research a seller on eBay, this way you can make a wise, logical, and confident decision when bidding on any meteorite.
Before you continue what's the big deal with the ID card or COA?
This to me is the most important part that a collector needs to pay attention to when bidding or even buying meteorites from any Dealer or seller on eBay. This is usually standard protocol for all Dealers. They usually will provide you with an ID card that describes the meteorite you purchased, where the meteorite was found or fell, including dates and the meteorite weight or size. Most importantly they guarantee and back it up with a real name on the card or COA (certificate of authenticity). Most Dealers consider their ID card as a COA. I will not, never have, or never will, purchase or bid on a meteorite if an ID card or COA is not supplied. I highly recommend you do the same.
So most Dealers supply you with an ID card or COA? What if the meteorite on eBay I'm interested in does not mention in the auction anything about an ID card or COA?
Yes, most if not all reputable Dealers including those reputable Dealers on eBay will provide you with an ID card or COA. If not you can always ask for one by contacting the Dealer or Seller and request this ID card or COA be provided with the meteorite. If a Dealer or Seller will not provide one, simply do not purchase or bid on that meteorite period!. The reason for this is important to understand. Every meteorite had to come from someone. There is a history or as I like to put it there is a blood line or family tree so to speak on how a meteorite was passed along and became available for sale. You need that ID card or COA as documentation or proof that the meteorite is legitimately authentic and its authenticity is backed by the Seller or Dealer. A meteorite is worthless without it. Not only will you have trouble reselling it, you will also have nothing to fight with if you find out later that the meteorite you bought is NOT a meteorite at all or not the type meteorite described by the Dealer or Seller on eBay. This is to protect you and your investment. I have spent tens of thousands of dollars on my collection. Every meteorite I own has an ID card or COA received for this reason. Lets move on to step 4 in researching a seller on eBay and requesting an ID card or COA.
Ok show me how to research a Seller on eBay and request an ID card or COA!
In summary at this point we have clicked the eBay's Meteorite Pages link above and checked all the meteorites that are available on eBay. We also have an idea what type of meteorite we are interested in. We have also found several auctions that are selling that type meteorite we want to purchase. We have done our homework checking the price per gram using other Dealer sites so we know roughly our maximum bid when bidding. Now its time to protect yourself!
Let's use the illustration screen shots below of an actual eBay auction to help us understand the easiest way to protect yourself. Every auction on eBay will look very much similar in regards to finding a sellers feedback percentage and ratings, including description, shipping charges and payments.
Our first most important concern at this point is the percent (%) of positive feedback. This can be found at the top right side of an eBay auction. I have circled this in red pointed with a red arrow above so you will easily find its location.
Before we continue with the feedback perecentage lets quickly look over this part of the auction page.
The Seller was smart to add a picture of the actual item for sale or bid. This is very wise of the Seller! If an auction does not have a picture for you to see, you can contact the Seller and request one. We will touch on this later. This auction is a Buy it Now which means you do not bid on this item but instead can purchase it outright. It should not matter if this is a Buy it Now type auction or a bidding type auction since you will still do the same research listed on this page for any auction. We also see the Seller is asking $100.00 in U.S. currency for this piece of iron type meteorite known as Campo del Cielo. We also see that the shipping will cost you $6.00 and will be sent out by USPS known as the United States Postal Service. Lets look at a closeup below of the feedback percentage and other interesting facts!
The reference box down below will help familiarize you with some of the information listed on an eBay auction page.
1- This is the eBay name of Seller or Dealer
2- This is the total number of feedback includes selling & buying.
3- This is the percent of positive feedback earned by Seller.
4- Clicking any of these options you will be able to get more info.
5- This is the name of the Sellers store on eBay if they have one.
6- This is the eBay item number for this auction.
7- This is where the item resides and will be shipped from.
8- Means the Seller will ship this item anywhere in the world.
9- Means the Seller accepts PayPal or other forms of payment.
Close-up of Sellers eBay Info
Compare the numbers on the close-up eBay auction page to your left to the numbers down below for there meaning
Note: The most important information we want to know is #1 and #2.
If a Seller or Dealer has LESS then 99% Positive feedback and fewer then 100 total feedback it is my opinion that you look for another Seller. There are exceptions to this but for the most part this is the best way to protect yourself.
We can see that this Seller has a 100% Positive Feedback with over 589 total Feedback! So far this Seller has passed an important criteria to warrant a purchase from a Buyer like us. We need to go one small step further. We need to click that Total Feedback number this Seller has on #2 which is 589. This will bring up a page that lists all the individual feedback by Buyers who bought from this Seller, including feedback this Seller left for others and including items this Seller bought for themselves. Here we are only concerned with the tab "Feedback as a Seller". By clicking this tab we see what other Buyers wrote about their experiences & purchases from this Seller. Though this Seller has 100% positive feedback, we still want to see that this Seller has really sold items and that the majority of Positive Feedback % is not based on his/her BUYING but from SELLING! Lets look below at this "Feedback as a Seller" page in greater detail.
I have shortened this feedback page for space reasons and erased those Buyers eBay names for privacy on this site. Notice now we are on the "Feedback as a Seller" page boxed in red. The large red boxes I have outlined above top are self explanatory showing this Sellers activity over the last 12 months. It is important to read a few feedbacks left by the Buyers. This will help you assure that this Seller is trustworthy and honest! As you can see at the bottom of the page boxed in red and underlined, this Seller has 20 pages of Feedback! All Positive as a Seller! You can click to any page to view that pages feedback. We see this Seller has caught our serious attention for a sale. Let's continue on to the last part to solidifying a decision to purchase from this Seller or other Seller with similar credentials.
Description of item for sale or bids, including Shipping info.
Here a good Seller or Dealer will describe exactly what you are purchasing or bidding on. We see this meteorite weighs 611.7 grams. Doing our homework by researching this meteorite, we find that the Campo del Cielo iron meteorite can range in price from 15 cents to 75 cents per gram, give or take, depending on the quality. Knowing the simple math we can figure out how much per gram this meteorite is. The Seller is asking $100 for 612 grams (rounded off) for this type meteorite. So... $100 divided by 612 grams or 100 ÷ 612 = 0.16 or simply 16 cents per gram. This Seller is well within the price range. In fact closer in price to the low end per gram for this type meteorite and this is usually because the bigger the meteorite you purchase the price per gram will be less. The smaller a piece the more per gram or milligram you will pay. This Seller definitely meets our criteria. Also notice that the Seller will supply you with an ID Card! That is very important to know. If a Seller does not state in the auction you will be supplied with at least an ID Card or a COA, then you MUST CONTACT that Seller and ask for one. Simply click the "Ask a question" located below the Sellers Positive Feedback percentage %. If the Seller says he does not have one or refuses to produce one, then DO NOT BUY! Look elsewhere. Lets check the very last part of this auction down below pertaining to shipping.
Here we see that this Seller explains very specifically the charges to ship this item to you. Shipping to the USA is $6.00 and shipping outside the USA is $10.00 U.S. Currency. This is very reasonable! Not only that, the Seller AGAIN mentions this item will come with an ID Card! This Seller also shows his IMCA (International Meteorite Collectors Association) membership number 4682. All anyone has to do is simply click this IMCA logo and you will automatically be taken to the IMCA Home Page which opens in a new window to verify this Member.
Now can I buy or bid on this item?
Absolutely YES! This Seller has filled our criteria completely! Again even though this is a Buy it Now and no bidding is needed, the same criteria is used on Sellers with bid type auctions. Once you know the rough estimate of the cost per gram of any meteorite by the lessons I explained above, you can bid based on the maximum amount you roughly figured. Please remember that sometimes you will not be able to find a rough idea per gram cost of a meteorite. This happens especially with meteorites that many Dealers do not have on their Sites to compare or when a new meteorite is found or recently fallen. The set price per gram then will be established by the Dealer and more often then not by the Buyers who usually helps establish this price by purchasing. Many times the Dealer will put up these new meteorites on eBay with a bid type auction and this sometimes helps the Dealer and Buyer zero in on a price per gram cost. Remember too that a meteorites worth is only what a Buyer will pay, so sometimes there will be fluctuations in price.
Important: What we have seen here is that this Seller fills the criteria we look for when buying meteorites on eBay and that this is the type of Dealer or Seller we want to seek out on eBay. This will assure that you can feel confident, safe, and certain, that what you purchase or bid on is the REAL DEAL! I have made life a bit easier for all of you by listing a short group of these Dealers and Sellers on eBay that fill this criteria at the end of this page.
Great! I just purchased this meteorite or my bidding won this meteorite. Am I done?
Just about. There is one last step that we must go through to button up this whole sale.
Completing the sale.
Once you have paid the Seller via PayPal or any other forms of payment that the Seller stated on the auction, its time to sit back and wait until the meteorite is delivered to your residence. To make this easier I have listed in order below the last few things to do that will complete your purchase, including some words of advice that should be followed.
1) Be patient on your package delivery. If you live in the USA and purchased from a Seller or Dealer on eBay that als0 lives in the USA, then delivery time will usually take 3 to 7 days. If the purchase is from a Seller or Dealer living outside of the USA, then delivery can be 10 to 14 days. If you do not receive your item within these time frames please contact the Seller or Dealer. What ever you do please try and be patient DO NOT leave negative feedback to the Seller or Dealer because of delivery delays. You, the Seller, and or Dealer are at the mercy of the delivery service provider and or at the mercy of Customs when dealing with items outside of your home country. There is nothing anybody can do to speed this process up and a negative feedback is totally unjust to the Seller or Dealer because of this!
2) When your meteorite is finally delivered, please inspect your item to make sure it is exactly what you purchased and it matches the Seller or Dealers description and or picture on the eBay auction.
3) Keep all documentation including ID Card and or COA and store safely away. This paper work is your proof of purchase and guarantee of authenticity.
4) It is wise to label your meteorites! This can be done in several ways. If the meteorite is in a Gem jar or plastic square case, I recommend that you make a paper label that will fit inside the back of case or a case that you choose to use. Here you will add info like meteorite name, weight, and Seller or Dealer name you purchased from. This will prevent any mix ups with other meteorites you collect. Believe me do this! If the meteorite is to big to put in a case then take several PICTURES of that meteorite and file those pictures with the other information you received. I do not recommend writing on any meteorites with any type of marker, pen, pencil, or anything else!
5) Weigh your meteorite specimen! That's right, make sure your meteorite is the weight described by the Seller or Dealer. I recommend that you purchase a scientific scale for this! This will assure that you received what you paid for. More info on scales can be found on my Tools of Both Trades page by clicking HERE. Please remember that the less expensive scales will only weigh in increments of 1/10th of a gram which for the most part is suffice. Some Sellers and Dealers will sell their meteorites based on weight in milligrams by which you will need a scale that can measures mass/weights in milligrams. Most meteorites listed in milligrams are usually Lunar, Martian or very rare type meteorites in which an extreme limited quantity exists or is available.
6) 1/10th of a gram = 100 milligrams.
7) Once you have checked every thing out and all meets your expectations, PLEASE leave FEEDBACK to the Seller or Dealer on eBay. This will allow others to see that this Seller or Dealer is trustful and honest based on your feedback.
I have done my best in presenting how to safe guard yourself when purchasing or bidding for meteorites on eBay. Though I may have missed a few things throughout this page, I can assure you that following these steps will provide you with a great experience in this fascinating hobby of collecting meteorites. These steps will keep you on the right path in an area of town that can be dangerous. I would like to thank wanderingstarmeteorites for permission in using this Sellers actual auction that I presented to all of you. I would recommend you joining the IMCA or the Meteorite Central mailing list to further protect and enhance your learning to avoid purchasing meteorite wrongs or fakes. Both organizations help immensely to warn, protect and prevent the meteorite collector from fraud and to eliminate these Sellers or Dealers that sell fraudulent meteorites, so these "meteorites" are not distributed to the meteorite collecting community. Links to the IMCA and Meteorite Central are listed below. I also added a few more resource links of interest, including a list of Sellers and Dealers that sell on eBay located at the bottom of this page. Please use them!
More Resources that help protect Buyers
List of eBay Meteorite Sellers and Dealers
99-100% Positive Feedback
100 minimum number total Feedback
An association that helps teach, warn & protect meteorite collectors. Has an excellent site called Encyclopedia of Meteorites
A fantastic Mailing List that will keep you posted on fake or suspect eBay meteorite auctions as well as all areas related to meteorites. Join!!
eBay Review & Guide
Nice short page by mosfet101 to help you understand the importance of feedback percentage and score.
eBay Review & Guide
Another nice page this time by magellon with great tips on meteorite buying and selling for beginner meteorite collectors.
eBay Review & Guide
A page by gouurry with great tips on how to avoid bad Sellers on eBay pertaining to all Sellers of all type items.
A nice page listing eBay Sellers/Dealers that sell suspect meteorites including some pictures showing suspect meteorites. Worth looking at!
Note of interest: I have personally reviewed each of the eBay Sellers/Dealers feedback listed below. Being a collector and seller myself, my criteria is tough to warrant these eBay Sellers and Dealers on this page of my web site! I have dealt with, bought, sold, and know most if not all of these Sellers/Dealers. My utmost confidence in referring them to you, the new collector or veteran to the hobby of meteorites, is one of total assurance, certainty, truthfulness and honesty to the highest degree. I would like to thank all those on this List for allowing me to share your eBay name on my web site. I will continue to add more names to this List in due time based on my criteria listed above in green text.
Founder-Cosmic Treasures Celestial Wonders
eBay Name Positive Feedback %
eBay Name Positive Feedback %
To check an eBay Seller/Dealer below for Feedback, Sales or Auctions.
1) Click on the eBay Name and a new window will open.
2) Copy n Paste or type the eBay Name in the search box.
3) Enter the verification code that displays in the image.
4) Click the search button. A new page shows the name of Seller/Dealer.
5) You will then be able to click the feedback number or Sellers items..
Copyright © 2010 Cosmic Treasures Celestial Wonders
$60.00 U.S. Currency